Easter Rising Of 1916
Irish: Éirí Amach na Cásca






fig02_500.jpg
"Easter Monday 1916! Nineteen years ago, the Irish saved their country by shedding their blood for it." http://www4.uwm.edu/celtic/ekeltoi/ volumes/vol4/4_1/images/fig02_500.jpg

Table of Contents
1. Overview
1.1 How it Started - Darius O.
1.2 What’s the Conflict - Mekenna L.
1.3 What were the effects - Kajuan G.
1.4 How did it end - Khyrie O

2. Honorable Mention
2.1 Patrick Henry Pearce - Darius O.
2.2 James Connolly - Khyrie O.
2.3 Countess Constance Gore-Booth Markiewicz
- Mekenna L.
2.4 Joseph Mary Plunkett - Kajuan G.

3. Relevant Links
4. Works Cited



1.Overview

The Easter Rising of 1916 was a revolt against the British government that began on Easter Monday, April 1916, in Dublin, Ireland (historylearningsite.co.uk). The rising was organized by the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), led by Patrick Pearse, along with James Connolly's socialist Irish Citizen Army and sections of the Irish Volunteers (historylearningsite.co.uk). Although it was a military failure, it played a key role in shifting nationalist opinion from loyalty to the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP) to becoming its own self-governed state (historylearningsite.co.uk). The 15 executed leaders of this revolt were seen to some as traitors, however, to the greater Irish population they were seen as heroes. These men and women who gave the ultimate sacrifice for the independence of their homeland deserve every bit of thanks and praise that they have been receiving since their unfortunate deaths.

1.1 "How it started?"
During the beginning of the 19th Century, Ireland and Great Britain were combined under the Act of Union of 1800 to become the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (victorianweb.org/history/ireland1.html). There was heavy opposition of this since it came about, and many Irish nationalist began to openly fight the act (victorianweb.org/history/ireland1.html). Younger and crazier nationalists became disappointed with parliamentary politics and decided on turning to more extreme forms of separatism (victorianweb.org/history/ireland1.html). It seems that the more England pressed to control, the more that Ireland wanted to revolt, just like a child who has a "helicopter parent". In 1858, the Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) was created with one goal in mind: Irish independence (historylearningsite.co.uk). It was a secret organization, and it's believed that there were never more than 2,000 members in it (historylearningsite.co.uk). In 1910 they started their own document, known as the "Irish Freedom" and all the men who signed the proclamation of an Irish Republic in 1916 were all members of the IRB (historylearningsite.co.uk).

Other Irish citizens have been losing faith in the British government due to their lack of action or even concern for them during the Great Famine (Irish: an Gorta Mór) during the 1840's (historylearningsite.co.uk). To them, the Irish had become second class citizens in the then "World's Greatest Empire", and every argument presented to London about Ireland independence was harshly ignored (historylearningsite.co.uk). Many would believe that Britain would have learned their lesson in terms of neglecting who they govern, following the loss of their largest overseas empire, the Thirteen American Colonies, in 1781. When England declared war in 1914, the citizens in the IRB and other organizations knew that it was soon time to rise up, and invest in any outside help that they could get (historylearningsite.co.uk).


1.2“What’s the conflict?”
The Irish wanted Independence from Britain and they tried everything in their power to do so. Britain had control over Ireland for hundreds of years (rootsweb.ancestry.com). In these years the Irish had to endure many harsh times including great famines that lasted for years on end, laws constricting them of their rights, and anti-catholic laws (historyempire.com). The rules that were created were completely unfair and biased towards the Irish and that was what the British wanted. The main conflict the Irish faced was their independence and the fact that the British had control over Ireland’s government (rootsweb.ancestry.com). Therefore, the Irish built up and started organizations and brotherhoods that were against the British varying from around 2,000 members at one point to 200,000, which were all Irish men and volunteers, willing to fight for their country (historyempire.com). The volunteers came in numbers to fight for what they believed in and if they had not the Irish rebellion would not have been feasible. These organizations took over 50 years to build and the Irish believed it was well worth it, so that they could have their freedom.


1.3“What were the effects?”

Many Irish rebels showed the longing for independence from Britain by uprising, but the effects were very horrific and cruel (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com). People who participated were brutally maimed and killed (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com). For example, many rebels died by firing squads and executions (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com). Also, not only were they killed but also innocent passersby were killed too as well (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com). Although one man would partake in the revolt, he and his brother who took no part of it was killed as well (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com). The rebellion wasn’t successful or popular until James Connolly, who had been already shot was sentenced to be inhumanely executed (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com). From that execution the country became upset and more involved about the rebellion (www.unitedirelander.blogspot.com).


1.4“How did it end”
In the aftermath of this epic rebellion there were 15 executions of all seven of the Council Members including Connolly (www.essortment.com). One participant Emanon de Valera was received a life sentence which was later overturned by the many Irish supporters in the U.S.A. Another seventy-five rebels had the death penalty commuted to penal servitude, including Countess Constance Markievicz, who would later become the first woman elected to the Westminster parliament(www.historylearningssite.co.uk). Although the rebellion was considered a failure, it was still a major boost for the Irish population making them more aware of the cause. The executions caused a widespread outrage which planted the seeds of and Irish Republic which was granted in 1921. Also de Valera became the president of the New Free State in 1933 (www.essortment.com). This rebellion has served as a constant reminder of the strength and perseverance of the Irish people and the willingness they have to fight for there beliefs and their country.


2. Honorable Mention

2.1 Patrick Henry Pearce (Pádraig Pearse)

Padraig Pearse (Lyrics)
Patrick_Pearse.jpg
Patrick Pearse is considered today as the "First President of Ireland" for his brave actions against the British (Pic from: http://innisfree1916.wordpress.com/2006/11/19/)


Patrick Pearse (Irish: Pádraig Pearse) is considered to be one of the most important historical figureheads in recent Irish history. His political activism, sheer determination, and his brutal execution for the freedom of Ireland have made him be known as the “Face” of the Easter Rising Rebellion. Born on November 10, 1879, he's been said to have an easy childhood because his father, a stone architect, constantly had work (historylearningsite.co.uk). His mother had four children, and Patrick was the second born in the family (historylearningsite.co.uk).

Irish history was Patrick’s favorite subject in school (historylearningsite.co.uk).In high school he was taught the Irish language for the first time, and he then joined the Gaelic League, a group aiming at promoting Irish literature and language (historylearningsite.co.uk). It's apparent that English oppression was the reason of Pearse not learning the language of his own people until he was in high school. Quite like an opposite effect in today's world; we having grown up knowing our culture gets us intersted in learning about others. For Patrick, he was stuck learning about the Britain's culture until he learned about that of his own people. As he took up more schooling, such as his law degree from the King’s Inns and his BA course in modern languages, his interest as Ireland as a nation grew even stronger (historylearningsite.co.uk). He believed that Gaelic was the rightful language of Ireland, and for most of his life his education has been around English (historylearningsite.co.uk). These were the views that the vast majority of Ireland believed after he was executed. He joined “
An Claidheamh Soluis” (The Sword of Light) a program of the Gaelic League’s aiming to expand the use of Gaelic in Irish life, particularly in literature (historylearningsite.co.uk).

By time he was 30, he started to gain political insight on his countries issues; he couldn’t stand England’s impact on the Irish people, but he still concerned more about the Irish culture than their politics (historylearningsite.co.uk). He believed that the Irish culture and history should be taught in schools and colleges as required courses (historylearningsite.co.uk). Nearly everybody ignored his complaints, which Patrick wasn't going to allow to become a roadblock. Without proper permissions, he opened St. Enda’s, an “Irish-Ireland” school which followed the curriculum he set for Irish students to learn about who they were as a people (bbc.co.uk). He managed to develop a rebel mindset for all of his fellow citizens in Ireland's name. This was a small accomplishment, but in the long run it was a significant step in terms of the liberation and freedom of Ireland as a whole.

In 1913, Patrick Pearse was becoming more politically fanatical; he swore into the secret Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB), an organization committed to completely overthrowing British rule in Ireland and replacing it with its own independent government (historylearningsite.co.uk). He helped organize the Irish Volunteers; the public side of the Irish Republican Brotherhood just before England jumped into World War I. It angered him to watch young Irish men enlist for their military and fight alongside England (historylearningsite.co.uk). To him, it seemed like the British fingers were pulling the strings of every single aspect of the lives of the Irish. By this time, Patrick lost it; he published a pamphlet called “The Murder Machine”, a writing which explained his beef with the Irish educational system (historylearningsite.co.uk). He also said that London was completely focused on their opponents in the Great War, and it was time to overthrow Britain's rule in Ireland
(knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Patrick_Pearse/). He had a well thought out plan on how to get the British off their backs, but the he was missing the one key link to truly keep the redcoats at bay forever: the Irish population.

Patrick Pearse didn’t have the mass support he believed that he did in the Independence effort; in truth, most of the Dublin citizens needed the English for work (historylearningsite.co.uk). It brought money to their homes and food on their tables, whether they liked it or not. (historylearningsite.co.uk). They didn't want to focus in on rebellions or new world orders in their nation, because they knew that they wouldn't be able to upkeep with the lives of their families or even get executed. This was quite understandable, especially because the vast majority of people, no matter which period in time, fear change, and the British took care of them, despite the horrible job they have done.

The uprising was doomed from the start; Pearse expected the actions taken by Dublin to spread to other Irish cities to take their country back, but he was wrong
(knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Patrick_Pearse/). That, and the fact that the men who fought with the British did so because the chose to do so (historylearningsite.co.uk). Because of this, Patrick Pearse seemed to have jumped off the plane without making sure he wearing his parachute. Those who participated in the Easter Uprising of 1916 were the minority, and the citizens gave the rebels no support (knowledgerush.com/kr/encyclopedia/Patrick_Pearse/). Stores were looted because all of the attention was shifted to the rebels’ actions (historylearningsite.co.uk).

During the rebellion, Pearse stated that “When we’re all wiped out, people will blame us for everything, condemn us…(but) in a few years they will see the meaning of what we tried to do.” (Patrick Henry Pearse) (historylearningsite.co.uk).

He was detained on April 28th, and the rest of the rebels had fallen the next day (bbc.co.uk). Just as he said, the Dubliners blamed Pearse and his followers for the destruction of their city and jeered him as he was taken to Kilmainham Prison (historylearningsite.co.uk). He was charged with treason and sentenced to death by firing squad (Mrs. Fitch-Brash). Brutally, the firing squad killed Pearse as well as the other radicals involved, which was just the action needed to get the support Patrick wanted in the first place (bbc.co.uk). When the public found out about the executions of him and James Connolly, outrage swept over all of southern Ireland. Patrick Pearse was then known as the “First President of Ireland” and after 1922, Irish history and culture became a part of their educational system (historylearningsite.co.uk). It’s very ironic how Patrick Pearse couldn’t get what he needed until after his blood was shed. If he had the same support while he was alive as he did after his execution, the English Empire wouldn’t have been keeping Ireland as long as they have. As a matter a fact, the actions of rebels in the Easter Rising are the sole reason that the Irish began to fight for their independence in 1919.


Patrick Pearse never married, and has been questioned since 1909 on his sexual orientation whether he is homosexual or not (independent.ie). Despite the claims whether they are true or not, the actions that he has performed and the ultimate sacrifice that Pearse has made for his country overshadow the unnecessary arguments about whether he was homosexual or not.


2.2 James Connolly

"James Connolly" (Song)
"James Connolly" (lyrics)


James Connolly was a seemingly phantasmagorical leader in the Easter week rising of 1916. This great leader was born in June o
james_connolly13.jpg
James Connolly http://www.wageslave.org/jcs/ images/james_connolly13.html
f 1868 in a slum nicknamed “Little Ireland” located in Edinburgh, Scotland (historylearningsite.co.uk). His parents were originally from the county of Monaghan and migrated to Edinburgh, at a young age Connolly’s mother died of the deprivation they suffered (historylearningsite.co.uk).

Connolly went to school until the age of ten and joined a newspaper firm with the job of cleaning dried in rollers(historylearningsite.co.uk). This decision drop out of school to support his family was the first sign of Connolly’s sense of leadership. At the young age of fourteen Connolly joined the British Army where he stayed until he was twenty-one (historylearningsite.co.uk). Most of his service was in Ireland near Cork here he experienced first hand how the British treated the Irish soldiers, and how the landlords who owned the land treated them(permanentrevolution.net). It was during this time that Connolly developed his loathing towards the landlords and the seed for the need of equality was planted in young Connolly.

In 1889 Connolly retired from the military and married, he then moved back to Edinburgh where he worked as a laborer and a carter (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). Connolly moved back to Dublin after the failure of his cobbler’s shop in Edinburgh, and then in 1896 he founded the Irish Socialism Republican Society and the newspaper “The Workers Republic” (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). These organizations were Connolly’s foundation for his other soon to be created resistant groups. Then after Connolly began a series of lecture tours in Scotland and America, he returned to Dublin from America in 1902 (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). By this time the Irish Socialist Republican Society had essentially ceased to exist
his grievance towards the Irish comrades who he held responsible for his having to leave Ireland with the failure of the ISRP in 1903 is in evidence here, “Handicapped as I am with a large family, it is not an easy thing to move about the world. And at any rate I regard Ireland, or at least the socialist part of Ireland which is all I care for, as having thrown me out and I do not wish to return like a dog to his vomit.”(www.permanentrevolution.net). What is meant by this quote is that because of his large family Connolly was not able to move as freely as he would like, and he was not going to crawl back to the socialist part of Ireland that kicked him out. After this Connolly attempted to create another organization known as the Socialist Labor Party and this failed, which was the motivation for Connolly taking his family to live in America.(www.permanentrevolution.net).


In 1910 Connolly returned to Dublin, then in 1911 he was appointed as the Belfast organizer for the Irish transport and General Workers
(www.historylearningsite.co.uk). In 1912, he helped to found the Irish Labor Party. James Connolly also formed the Irish Citizens Army during the so-called ‘Great Lock-Out’ of 1913 when Connolly became a central figure in the workers opposition to the Employers Federation(www.permanentrevolution.net). Connolly’s main motivation for many of the groups he joined was helping the working class population. The Irish Citizens Army was created to protect the workers from any groups that might have been employed by the employers to ‘rough up’ any striking worker (www.historylearningsite.co.uk).



When the rebellion started Monday April 24th, Connolly was one of the seven to the Proclamation (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). The Proclamation was a group of great leaders that spear-headed the rebellion. Connolly was in charge of the General Post Office (GPO) which was the groups’ headquarters during the rebellion (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). Connolly had one of the most important jobs during the rebellion, he was protector of the rebel's secrets and attack strategies, that if were found by the enemy would been like a knife in the rebels’ backs and would have instantaneously ended the rebellion. Connolly was severely wounded during the fighting and once the rebels were forced to surrender he was arrested and charged in a military hospital in Dublin (permanentrevolution.com). He was then charged with treason, he knew what the verdict and punishment would be. At his court martial Connolly made one powerful statement “We want to break the connection between this country and the British Empire, and to establish an Irish Republic. We succeeded in proving that Irishmen are ready to die endeavoring to win for Ireland those national rights which the British government has been asking them to die to win for Belgium. As long as that remains the case, the cause of Irish freedom is safe. I personally thank God that I have lived to see the day when thousands of Irish men and boys, and hundreds of Irish women and girls, were ready to affirm that truth, and to attest it with their lives if need be"(www.historylearningsite.co.uk).
On May 26th 1916 Connolly was carried out of the hospital on a stretcher to the Kilmainham Prison courtyard, blind folded and tied to chair and shot by a firing squad (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). His body was thrown in an unmarked mass grave with no coffin (www.historylearningsite.co.uk). These executions angered the people of Ireland, but it was the circumstances of Connolly’s execution that sparked the most anger (permanentrevolution.com). Even in death Connolly and the other fallen heroes had succeeded in igniting a wave of pride from the Irish for their country and a thirst for freedom throughout Ireland.



2.3 Countess Constance Gore-Booth Markiewicz

"The Foggy Dew"

Countess Constance Gore-Booth Markiewicz was born in Buckingham Gate, London on February 4th, 1868 (historylearningsite.co.uk). Her parents were Anglo-Irish and quite wealthy(thewildgeese.com). Which means she was raised by very weathly and exceptionally intelligent parents. Her father was a philanthropist, who taught her to be nice and generous to people who were not as fortunate as her and later in her life it showed (thewildgeese.com). Her father’s kindness seemed to have rubbed off on her future decisions. She was presented to Queen Vict
Countess_Markiewicz.jpg
Officer Markiewicz http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Constance_Markiewicz
oria as the “the new Irish beauty" (thewildgeese.com). Constance did not want anything to do with the beautiful life. She wanted to be an artist and a strong educated woman (thewildgeese.com). She chose a path of her own and did not let any other persons opinion have an affect on hers. She attended a school in London, then one in Paris, where she met her future husband, Count Casimir Dunin Markievicz (thewildgeese.com). One day her and her husband rented a cottage previously owned by Pádraic Colum, where he had left revolutionary publications she found interest in, from then on things fell into place for her and she soon realized what she wanted to do in life (historylearningsite.co.uk). The idea of these books amazed her and made her want to be apart of what was going, and soon enough she was.

She was deeply involved in nationalist politics, she ran against Winston Churchill and lost, but it was mainly because of how people felt about women running for office at the time (historylearningsite.co.uk). The fact that she was brave enough to run for a polictial campaign was huge back in her time. She later founded Fianna Éireann, an organization which began teaching young boys military skills (thewildgeese.com). Many say that without the Fianna Éireann, the volunteers of 1913 would not have had the guts or skills to arise (thewildgeese.com). The Countess made it possibly to have people join and trained them so they could fight for their beliefs just like her. Constance designed the uniforms of the organization and composed their anthem (thewildgeese.com). Though many women participated in the rising of 1916, Constance was the only to be a part of Connolly’s Citizen Army (thewildgeese.com). She displayed vass amounts of bravery by actually being in combat at the uprising. She was given title of Officer; therefore she could carry arms, make decisions and give orders (thewildgeese.com). Constance was a woman who was given the title of Officer, which made her awfully valuable to the British. The rising lasted for six days, until finally it ended with the British soldiers bringing her a copy of Pearse’s surrender (historylearningsite.co.uk). Constance was taken to jail along with Pearse and Connolly, with a definite feeling of execution in her future; she prepared herself for death, as she heard her fellow friends suffer (thewildgeese.com). If she was not the brave women she was she would have broken down into tears, but instead she kept her head tall, stood by her decisions and was proud to die for Ireland. However, when she was sent to her court martial, they had decided for her to be sentenced to life in prison (thewildgeese.com). The only reason she was spared her life was on the account of prisoner’s sex. She had said about the decision ".... I do wish your lot had the decency to shoot me" (historylearningsite.co.uk). It was a profoundly brave thing for her to admit her true feelings.



Constance still fought for her beliefs and was jailed by the British again (thewildgeese.com). Even though she was jailed, it did not impede her from doing what she believed in. While she was in Prison for the second time she was the first women elected for the British Parliament, running for the Sinn Féin (historylearningsite.co.uk). Like all other candidates that ran for the Sinn Féin she did not take her seat because she would never allow herself to go under oath of the king (thewildgeese.com). She never gave up hope and continued to fight for what she believed was right and for this she was jailed numerous times on basically the same account.

Today Constance is known as the most famous women in the Irish Revolutionary movement (historylearningsite.co.uk). . She was nicknamed the Countess of Irish freedom, for that is what she fought for and dedicated her whole life too (thewildgeese.com). Constance chose her own path, to do what was right and she stood by it her decision for her whole life. Practically nothing could stop Countess Markiewicz from doing all she could for her country and its independence. The Countess was the only woman to actually go into combat as an officer versus sit on the sidelines as a nurse for the male rebels (historylearningsite.co.uk). For being involved in the actually uprising she was praised by many, and hated by some. She intentionally risked her life for the common people and she will be remembered forever for it (thewildgeese.com). She was an extremely tough woman with an extremely great outlook on life, without her, Ireland would have perished. Unfortunately, her life came to an end in July 1927, when she got extremely sick with either appendicitis or cancer (thewildgeese.com). Countess Constance Gore-Booth Markiewicz will be remembered for showing amazing bravery



2.4 Joseph Mary Plunkett
"Grace"
Joseph_Mary_Plunkett.jpg
Joseph Plunkett http://www.spock.com/Joseph-Mary-Plunkett

Joseph Plunkett was born in Dublin, Ireland and sadly he was diagnosed with tuberculosis in his childhood, so he was sent to the Mediterranean and Africa (triskelle.eu). In his early life he attended Stonyhurst College which later on gave him a military advantage in the rebellion (triskelle.eu). Also, he continued his education in school by taking great interest in his culture and heritage (triskelle.eu). When he joined the Gaelic League, he befriended Thomas MacDonagh, who also was involved in the rising (triskelle.eu). Plunkett’s father hosted a training camp on his property in Kimmage, South Dublin (wapedia.mobi). In this training camp young men were trained to for Ireland instead of escaping the inductions of England (wapedia.mobi). This was a very successful and secretive camp. He later joined the Irish Republican Brotherhood and was a co-founder of the Irish Volunteer Force (triskelle.eu).

During his involvement in the IRB he was sent to Germany and Plunkett met Sir Roger Casement (triskelle.eu). They worked together to get support from Germany, by asking for weapons and ammo to be sent to Ireland (triskelle.eu). This attempt failed and their plans were almost discovered (triskelle.eu). Casement recruited Irish prisoners of war in Germany to fight for Ireland while Plunkett was trying to receive arms from Germany (wapedia.mobi). Later, Plunkett traveled to the United States to inform Irish-American about operations in Ireland (triskelle.eu). He soon returned to Ireland and was welcomed to the supreme council and military council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood (triskelle.eu). And from life friend Thomas MacDonagh, he met and fell in love with Grace Gifford (triskelle.eu). They plan to marry on Easter of 1916 (triskelle.eu).

The Easter Rising started on Easter Monday then he prepared his position at the post office and signed the
Poblacht na hÉireann (triskelle.eu). The Poblacht na hEireann is also known as the Irish Proclamation or Eastern Proclamation (MacNamara, Ruth. "Poblacht na hEireann). It was composed on the Easter Rising of 1916 and signed by the seven leader of the rebellion: Tom Clarke, Sean MacDiarmada, Joseph Plunkett, Thomas MacDonagh, P.H. Pearse, Eamonn Ceannt and James Connolly (MacNamara, Ruth. "Poblacht na hEireann). However all who had signed this document was to be executed (MacNamara, Ruth. "Poblacht na hEireann . This document also symbolizes the right of the whole people of Ireland to the ownership to Ireland that Ireland is no longer a dominion of monarchy, but a republic, and the Poblacht na hEireann assured religious and civil liberties to all citizens, even women, because back then women were not allowed to vote, but they served their country by fighting or being involved in the rebellion (MacNamara, Ruth. "Poblacht na hEireann). During the rebellion, Plunkett’s condition had gotten worse; therefore, he was assisted by Michael Collins, who was in charge of the defense of Dublin's city center (triskelle.eu). The Easter Rising lasted for five days, but finally Plunkett had surrendered and was sent to Kilmainham Goal and sentenced to be executed (triskelle.eu). On May 4, 1916, Joseph Mary Plunkett married Grace Gifford in the prison chapel, then immediately executed (triskelle.eu). And what makes it more sad is that he never got to kiss the bride goodbye or at all.





Relevant Links



British Broadcasting Corperation. "BBC - History - 1916 Easter Rising - Profiles – Patrick Pearse." BBC - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/easterrising/profiles/po11.shtml >.

"Countess Markievicz." History Learning Site. Web. 04 Dec. 2009. http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/countess_markievicz.htm.

"Constance Markievicz: The Countess of Irish Freedom." Welcome to TheWildGeese.com -- The Epic History and Heritage of the Irish. Web. 07 Nov. 2009. <http://www.thewildgeese.com/pages/ireland.html>.

Independent . "God Save the Queen - without him, there'd have been no Easter Rising - National News, Frontpage - Independent.ie." Irish Independent News in Ireland & Worldwide | Irish Newspaper | News Stories Online - Independent.ie. N.p., 15 Apr. 2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. <http://www.independent.ie/national-news/god-save-the-queen--without-him-thered-have-been-no-easter-rising-507811.html >.

"James Connolly." History Learning Site. Web. 18 Nov. 2009. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/james_connolly.htm>.

Joseph Mary Plunkett. 30 Nov. 2009. 4 Dec. 2009 http://wapedia.mobi/en/Joseph_Plunkett.

MacNamara, Ruth. "Poblacht na hEireann." E-mail interview. 30 Nov. 2009.


Nevin, Donal. "Connolly’s life; Between Comrades letters and correspondence Review." Permanent Revolution. Permanent Revolution, 4 Oct. 2008. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. <http://www.permanentrevolution.net/entry/2352>.

"Patrick Pearse." . Web. 18 Nov. 2009. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/patrick_pearse.htm>.


"Triskelle - Irish history: Joseph Mary Plunkett." Triskelle - Spending Time In Ireland - Irish History, Music, Lyrics and Tourism. Web. 18 Nov. 2009. < http://www.triskelle.eu/history/josephplunkett.php?index=060.120.030.005.020



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<http://www.victorianweb.org/history/ireland1.html>.


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Mark, Ruth. "Easter Rising 1916." Essortment.com. Essortment.com, 2002. Web. 10 Nov. 2009. <http://www.essortment.com/all/easterrising_riiq.htm>.

"The 1916 Easter Rising." History Learning Site. History Learning Site, n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2009. .<http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/1916_easter_rising.htm>.

"The seven signatories - Joseph Plunkett." United Irelander. Web. 05 Nov. 2009. <http://unitedirelander.blogspot.com/2006/04/seven-signatories-joseph-plunkett.html >.