​​Catholic Emancipation, Land Agitation, & Home Rule

1. Summary
1.1 How It All Started - Maureo P.
1.2 Catholic Emancipation - Lauren G.
1.3 Land Agitation - Jessica L.
1.4 Home Rule - Lindsey P
2. Important People
2.1 Charles Stewart Parnell - Lindsey P.
2.2 Kathrine "Kitty" O'Shea - Lauren G.
2.3 Isaac Butt - Jessica L.
2.4 William Shaw - Maureo P.

2.4.1 Birth & Early Life
2.4.2 Life as a Politician

3. Relevant Links
4. Works Cited

1. Summary

1.1 How It All Started - Maureo P. :

It all began with the push for Home
Photo credit: <www.palgrave.com/.../questions/chapter16.html>.
Rule because of the British government’s desire to take control of Ireland (Home Rule Bills). This push took place in late 1800's and the early 1900's (Home Rule Bills). During this time, Britain fought hard to capture Ireland. Because of Ireland's small size and its close proximity to Britain, that is the reason to why Britain fought hard to capture Ireland. The British government went as far as bribing the Irish Parliament to pass the Act of Union of 1800 (Miller).

Restrictions on Catholics living in Ireland was another issue occuring at the same time for Ireland's stuggle for Home Rule (Catholic Emancipation). One of those issues was that Catholics did not have the right to vote (Miller). It was obvious that the Catholics of Ireland were being discriminated against. As an action to solve this issue, Connel led an agitation for the Catholics living under the united British Parliament (Catholic Emancipation). In 1823, Connel's agitation's success resulted in the passing of their right of sufferage (Miller).

1.2 Catholic Emancipation - Lauren G. :

The Catholic Emancipation began in 1823 and was taken to the people by Daniel O’Connell as their concern and as a popular campaign when he established the Catholic Association (Bloy). The reason the Catholic
Emancipation happened was because of all the laws that the Catholics made to put down other religions,especially the Anglican Constitution which the Catholic destroyed due to different Catholic laws. O’ Connell was a strong man in the sense
in body and mind, a great orator, debater, and lawyer, a master of sarcasm and invective; a man who could wring truth from a reluctant witness, or curb the insolence of a partisan judge, or melt a jury by his moving appeal (D’Alton). Daniel O’ Connell, an obviously smart and cunning man, decided that the way the government treated its people, that it would be best to start a rebellion. This made the government do a double take. Daniel O’Connell’s tactics
were adopted from American and French examples of agitation and pressure from the majority towards a single objective (Bloy). The campaign was non-violent but agitation was constant and by 1825 the Catholic Association was so active that it was declared to be illegal (Bloy). The Catholic Association influenced elections by encouraging Irish voters to elect only pro-emancipation candidates in the 1826 election (Bloy).

1.3 Land Agitation - Jessica L. :

As you may know, the British had control over Ireland. This included the land that they took from the Irish farmers; also, as a whole, called the Land War (Drudy) (Wikipedia). The British took the land from the Irish, but let them stay there in exchange for all the crops that they grew [tenant farming]. The farmers had to pay to stay on their own land, because technically the British owned it. The Irish farmers had to give up their crops as ‘payment’. The farmers were allowed to keep a small portion of food to feed themselves and their families though. The crop that the farmers were allowed to keep was the potatoes. This isn’t much to feed and sustain a family with, but it was something. When the potato crops were wiped out, the families’ only real source of food was wiped out. This emphasized the British’s control, especially on the farmers and their land. Some farmers rebelled by burning their crops and even outright shooting their ‘owners’ (Meehan). This just led to more fighting and possibly losing your family, either to fighting or starvation. Imagine something so important of yours being taken away! The imagine having to pay to use it. The British took away about everything and then dangled it in the Irish's faces.

1.4 Home Rule - Lindsey P. :

Home Rule was the name given to the process of allowing Ireland more say in how it was governed (Home Rule and Ireland). Isaac Butt, the man who fathered this political policy stated that “Ireland suffered not so much from bad government but from scarcely any government at all” (Home Rule). The Irish felt that the “Empire” failed to understand Irish troubles and was not providing sufficient consideration nor effort to alleviate them, but a Home Rule parliament in Dublin would. The House of Lords was a main blockade to Home Rule, they saw the introduction of Home Rule in Ireland as a threat to British power (Home Rule and Ireland). John Redmond, the leader of the Irish Nationalist Party stated in 1910 “that it was the Lord’s veto alone that came between Ireland and a successful Home Rule bill” (Home Rule and Ireland). Home Rule began in 1870 but was cast aside by the out break of World War One.

2. Important People

2.1 Charles Parnell - Lindsey P. :
Charles Stewart Parnell was born June 1846 and he died October 1891 in Brighton, Sussex (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). Both of his parents were strong Irish nationalists and he was raised with an increasing resentment for British dominance over Ireland (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). Parnell became involved in politics after the execution of the “Manchester Martyns” (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). The “Manchester Martyns” were three members of the Fenian movement in Ireland, for independence from British rule. In 1889 he caused the divorce of Capitain O’Shea and his wife Katherine, this adultery crippled his political influence (“Charles Stewart Parnell” The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition) and may have assisted his early death.

Charles Stewart quickly made a name for himself, he was elected the Member of Parliament for Meath in 1875 (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). Soon after he joined the fight form Home Rule. Parnell perfected the use of “filibustering” so he could delay the English Parliament ("Charles Stewart Parnell" ireland-information.com). In 1879 he was made president of the Irish National Land League (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). Parnell wanted Irish farmers to own their own land. He was named the “Uncrowned King of Ireland, even though he was unsuccessful in getting any land reform (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). In 1881 Parnell was arrested and the Irish National Land League was suppressed by the Coercion Act (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk). He was later released with the agreement of the “Kilmainham Treaty” with Gladstone; this treaty temporarily abated the people’s anger. After Parnell’s scandal with Kitty O’Shea his political influence had suffered badly but it wasn’t terminal, he managed to maintain supporters. With these supporters he split the Irish Parliamentary Party and you either where with him or you weren’t (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk)."Parnell brought the whole issue of Home Rule to the forefront of British politics, he helped to create a political party that had discipline and could operate effectively at Westminster, he successfully courted the support of Britain's most important politician at that time, William Gladstone, he showed that there were sections of the British establishment who would stop at nothing to undermine the cause of the Irish" (“Charles Stewart Parnell” historylearningsite.co.uk).

"Blackbird Of Sweet Avondale" - Wolfe Tones (Song, Lyris, and Chords)​

2.2 Kathrine "Kitty" O'Shea - Lauren G. :

Kitty O'Shea Song:Paul Bradley plays Kitty O'Shea

Katherine Wood the last child of a large wealthy landed gentry Essex family Kathrine, always known as "Katie," was brought up to become a loyal wife and loving mother (womenofbrighton.com). It woud be obvious that a well brought up woman would never think to cheat on her husband. Well, Kathrine Wood was very much an exception. In 1867 she married "Willie" O'Shea, a "Castle Catholic" descendent of the old Norman aristocracy who had colonized Ireland in the 12th Century (womenofbrighton.com). Her marriag to Willie O'Shea gave them three wondeful children. Willie took up Irish Politics and became MP for County Clare and the family moved to Eltham in South London (womenofbrighon.com). With Willie being involved in politics, he gained various conctons to other politicans Ireland and England.In 1880 he introduced her to Charles Stewart Parnell; the Irish MP destined to bring Home Rule to Ireland, Ireland's "Uncrowned King"(womenofbrighton.com).

It was through this introduction that Katherin became infatuated with Parnell. Even though Kathrine was still married to O'Shea,she began to see Parnell.Kitty O'Shea wrote many passages about her affair with Charles Parnell. One excerpt would be from a book entitled "An Affair to Remember: Greatest Love Stories of All Time" in which the author describes a passage O' Shea wrote: Kitty claimed that O'Shea knew about her affair with Parnell from the outset writing: He actually encouraged me at times. I remember especially one particular occasion very early in the affair when he wanted to get Parnell's assent to something or other he said-'Take him back with you to Eltham and make him happy and comfortable for the night just to get him to agree.' And I knew what he wanted (Gressor and Cook). The scandal broke in 1890 when Willie O'Shea filed suit for divorce from Katie citing Parnell, as co-respondent (womenofbrighton.com).This lead to a massive outbreak of the scandal to be highly publicized in newspapers. The newspapers slandered Kathrine to the point of giving her nickname "Kitty" since it had feline and predatory connotations. After the divorce with O'Shea, Parnell and Kathrine were married at the registry office in Steynin on 25th June 1891 - for not one of the local vicars would marry them (womenofbrighon.com). Then Octber 16th, 1981,Parnell died (womenofbrighton.com).Katherine soon became ill herself and died in 1921 (womenofbrighton.com)

2.3 Isaac Butt - Jessica L. :


Isaac Butt was born on September 6, 1813 (Encyclopædia Britannica). Isaac Butt was an important man. He was a politician, a lawyer (Tonge), and a professor (Encyclopædia Britannica). Butt went to the Royal school in Raphoe for secondary school and then to Trinity College Dublin at the young age of fifteen (Wikipedia)! And while he was there, he co-founded the Dublin University Magazine (Wikipedia). After his schooling he was made the professor of political economy in Trinity College Dublin (Love to know).You can tell that Isaac Butt was a very smart and brilliant man. He had a really strong education followed by a really active life in politics.

He had been the lawyer to defend a lot of the Young Ireland leaders and a lot of Fenians [“Irish Republican, or Revolutionary, Brotherhood”] (Encyclopædia Britannica). As you can imagine, he was an important man. It was a big deal because he was basically coming to the defense of the ‘rebels’. He “was engaged in the defence of Smith O’Brien in 1848” and “of the Fenians between 1865 and 1869” (Love to know). Also, “intermittently from 1852 he represented, successively, one English and two Irish constituencies in the British House of Commons” (Encyclopædia Britannica). He really used this characteristic of his to good use [being a lawyer]. It is a good show of character that he tried to use his skills to make an impact. But contrary to the fact that he stood up for the Fenians, he was kind of scared of the Fenians being successful (Encyclopædia Britannica). It is strange how he played such a role in defending these people yet he was afraid of what might happen upon their success.

He played a large political role even without being just being a lawyer. He practically invented the term “Home Rule” (Encyclopædia Britannica). Isaac Butt was in and started many groups. He was the “founder and first leader of many Irish nationalist parties and organizations, including the Irish Metropolitan Conservative Society in 1836, the Home Government Association in 1870 and in 1873 the Home rule League” (Wikipedia). When Isaac Butt died on May 5, 1879 (Encyclopædia Britannica), he left behind many great things and memories for people. To celebrate Isaac Butt and all his greatness people have name things for him; such as Isaacs Hostel (ISAACS HOSTEL), the Isaac Butt Bridge (The Isaac Butt Bar), and the Isaac Butt Bar in Dublin (The Isaac Butt Bar). Isaac Butt has made such an impression that he even has his own article on the ‘Go where Ireland takes you’ website, which is trying to show the ‘essence’ of Ireland. So in short, Isaac Butt played such a part in Ireland’s history that he is mentioned still.

Erin's Green Shore Song/Audio/Video:
McNulty Family, Erin's Green Shore

Erin's Green Shore Song Lyrics:
Erin's Green Shore Lyrics Download

2.4 William Shaw - Maureo P. :

2.4.1 Birth & Early Life

He was born on May 4, 1823 in The Moy, Tyrone County of Northern Ireland (Falkiner). Shaw was born to father, Samuel Shaw, who worked in the church as a Congregational minister (Falkiner). Information about Shaw's mother is unknown. As a child, Shaw was privately educated and later his later teen years, he enrolled in Trinity College in Dublin but never got a degree (Falkiner). Like father, like son, Shaw "was intended" and did go into Congregational ministry at in independent church in Cork in 1846 to 1850 (Newman and Falkiner). It is obvious that Shaw wanted to follow in the footsteps of his father. Little did he know that he would actually surpass his father by his later accomplishments. He was also the Congregational minister of the private church in Cork but resigned in 1840 (Newman). In 1850, Shaw married a woman named Charlotte Clear (Falkiner).

2.4.2 Life as a Politician

After working in the church for some time, Shaw involved himself in higher political affairs. He was elected into the Irish Parliament in November of 1868 (Falkiner). Later in his years in the Irish Parliament, he along with fellow politicians like, Isaac Butt, became part of the Home Rule League in 1873 (Falkiner). The Home Rule League was like a political party. In the Home Rule League, advocates faught for the Home Rule of Ireland. Following the Home Rule destiny, Shaw joined the Home Rule party in 1874 (Falkiner). Shaw was most known for his arguments with fellow Home Rule Party members (Falkiner). Shaw had a bad temper, like most politicians today. As a result, in December 1882, he resigned from the Home Rule Party (Falkiner). In 1885, he retired from politics and died in 1895 at age 72 (Newman).

The Union Cruiser Song/Audio/Video with Lyrics:
The Union Cruiser

3. Related Links

"Charles Stewart Parnell" history learningsite.co.uk. 2000-2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009 <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/charles_stewart_parnell.htm>.

"Charles Stewart Parnell" ireland-information.com. 2008. Web. 20 Nov. 2009 <http://www.ireland-information.com/articles/charlesstewartparnell.htm>.

"Charles Stewart Parnell
" The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition." 2008. Encyclopedia.com. Web. 18 Nov. 2009 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Falkiner, C. L. “Shaw, William (1823–1895).” Rev. Alan O'Day. Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Ed. H. C. G. Matthew and Brian Harrison. Oxford: OUP, 2004. 6 Dec. 2009 <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/25273>.

Isaac Butt. Go where Ireland takes you. 2008. Web. 18 Nov. 2009. <http://www.discoverireland.com/za/ireland-things-to-see-and-do/listings/product/?fid=FI_52798>.

"Isaac Butt." Love to know it Classic Encyclopedia. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/Isaac_Butt>.

Isaac Butt . Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 18 Nov. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isaac_Butt>.

ISAACS HOSTEL. Go where Ireland takes you. 2008. Web. 18 Nov. 2009. <http://www.discoverireland.com/za/accommodation/listings/product/?fid=FI_36446>.

Kitty O'Shea. Gressor, Megan and Cook,Kerry. "An Affair to Remember" published 2005.Fair Wends Press.

Newmann, Kate. "William Shaw" Dictionary of Ulster Biography. Belfast, Ireland, 1993. Web. <http://www.newulsterbiography.co.uk/index.php/home/viewPerson/1522>.

"The Isaac Butt Bar." Go where Ireland takes you. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <http://www.discoverireland.com/za/ireland-things-to-see-and-do/listings/product/?fid=FI_51441.>

Tonge, Stephen. "Isaac Butt and the Home Rule Party." A Web of English History. Dr. Marjorie Bloy, 23 Sept. 2009. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <http://www.historyhome.co.uk/peel/ireland/butt.htm>.

Womenofbrighton.com. Kitty O'Shea.Web. 15 Nov. 2009.<http://www.womenofbrighton.co.uk/katieoshea.htm>

4. Works Cited

Cregier, Don M. "Catholic Emancipation." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2009. Grolier Online. 4 Dec. 2009 <http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0055090-0>.

Cregier, Don M. "Home Rule Bills." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2009. Grolier Online. 21 Nov. 2009. <http://gme.grolier.com/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0140410-0>.

Drudy, P. J. "Ireland--land, politics, and people." Google books. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <http://books.google.com/books?id=A6w8AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA93&lpg=PA93&dq=ireland+land+agitation&source=bl&ots=4TSVtOW8pn&sig=5vHrLjelna1Bp0smYV88OG3MnSo&hl=en&ei=jl0oS4GvDYqCswOUjpXKDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CBYQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=ireland%20land%20agitation&f=false>.

"Home Rule" Multitext Project in Irish History. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/Home_Rule>.

"Home Rule and Ireland." History Learning Cite. 2000-2009. Web. 19 Nov. 2009. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/home_rule_and_ireland.htm>.

Meehan, Niall. "Frank Gallagher and land agitation." Drb. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <http://www.drb.ie/more_details/09-09-20/Frank_Gallagher_and_land_agitation.aspx>.

Miller, David W. "Ireland, history of." Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. 2009. Grolier Online. 14 Dec. 2009 <http://gme.grolier.com/article?assetid=0149830-0>.

Various. "O'Connell's campaign 1823–29." Wikipedia. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catholic_emancipation#O.27Connell.27s_campaign_1823.E2.80.9329>.