The United Irish Rising of 1798





Table of Contents
1. Overview
1.1 How it started? - Candace H.
1.2 What is the conflict? - Roan R.
1.3 Important dates - Jackie E.
1.4 Effect of the Uprising - David T.

1.5 The Aftermath - Gian A.

2. Important People
2.1 Lord Edward FitzGerald - Roan R.
2.2 Theobald Wolfe Tone - Jackie E.
2.3 Henry Joy McCracken - David T.
2.4 Mary Ann McCracken - Candace H.
2.5 Roddy McCorley - Gian A.

3. Related Links
4. Works Cited


ir.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_Rebellion_of_1798

1. Overview


1.1 How is started:
The Irish Uprising of 1798 also known as The United Irishmen Rebellion was founded by an organization by the name of The Society of United Irishmen (Barlett). Created in 1791 by their leader Theobald Wolfe Tone, this group of determined men containing both Catholics and Protostants aimed to abolish the control of Ireland by the British Crown (Barlett). The creation of the group was highly influenced by the ideas of the American Democracy and the French Revolutions (Barlett).
Towards the end of 1798, the Irish resorted to asking Napoleon Bonaparte of France for assistance to fight against the British (Irish Rebellions of the 1800's).

1.2 The conflict:
The main conflict involved the idea of the Irishmen gaining their independence by executing a rebellion against the British. The goal of the United Irishmen was to establish “a peaceful future for Ireland in which Protestants and Catholics could live together in peace and with equality” (wesleyjohnston.com). They hoped to reform their political system, thus improving their society. They wanted to model the French-style democratic republic (wesleyjohnston.com). However, the Orange Order organization, established to “preserve loyalty to the monarchy” developed the conflict for the Irishmen (wesleyjohnston.com). Also, many Irish Catholics were excluded from voting and running in parliament (World History of KMLA). Thus, Irishmen saw this as a deprivation to their rights. They did not desire to tolerate the rule of the Anglican Protestant authority. The Irishmen hoped to develop their own independent government separate from Britain, but the British saw this idea as a threat (wesleyjohnston.com). The British saw this as a threat because they were afraid that it would spark ideas, so they hoped to prevent any potential rebellion. As a result, the British attacked the United Irishmen and killed many Protestants and Catholic members (wesleyjohnston.com). The British killed many of the members hoping to abate the uprising and stop the rebellion. They were ultimately defeated at the Battle of Vinegar Hill in County Wexford (wesleyjohnston.com).

1.3 Important dates:
Important Dates: It started with the Society of the United Irishmen in Belfast in October 1791 (bbc.co.uk). After the French and American revolutions, many citizens of Ireland adapted strong beliefs for the ideals of liberty, equality, and fraternity (heritage.nf.ca). They agreed to form a courageous secret, non- sectarian society and to rise up against British rule (heritage.nf.ca). Their courage and drive was an important factor describing the United Irishmen to the people of Belfast. Following the outbreak of war between Britain and France in February 1793, there were many suspicions of discovered negotiations between the United Irishmen and the French government (bbc.co.uk). This led to the suppression of the society in May 1794 (bbc.co.uk). During these times, the weakening flaws of the United Irishmen started to reveal. In December 1796, the United Irishmen planned to attack using direct French military intervention (bbc.co.uk). Although weather conditions prevented the French from landing, this set up the start of Dublin Castle’s build up in military defense against the United Irishmen (bbc.co.uk). By spring of 1798, many of the leaders of the society were imprisoned and French assistance seemed impossible (bbc.co.uk). The Dublin Castle was proved successful. However, in May 1798, the United Irishmen’s plan was successful as all the mail coaches leaving Dublin were seized in order to signal those United Irishmen outside the capital that the uprising had just begun (bbc.co.uk).

As the United Irishmen lacked ability and skill, their long, hard journey was clear of an unsuccessful fate (worldhistory.abc-clio.com). Small victories occurred throughout Dublin and Ulster, but only proved to be useless after another hard failure. By 1801, British Prime Minister William Pitt promulgated the Act of Union of 1801, ending the revolution and officially making Ireland a part of the United Kingdom (worldhistory.abc-clio.com). 1803 held the birth of another rebellion, arising from the ashes of the United Irishmen (bbc.co.uk). A legacy was left as the new rebellion arose. With United Irishman leader Robert Emmet, the rebellion “met the same fate as the earlier rebellion, and ceased to exist as a significant force” (worldhistory.abc-clio.com). Although the United Irish Rising of 1798 ended in a failed outcome, the rebellion served as a symbol for the commitment of great Irish patriotism. The dates listed above clearly show the work and sacrifice of many men who took action for what they believed in.

1.4 Effects:
Furthermore, there were consequences and establishments. One of the consequences dealt with General Marquis Cornwallace. In June 1798, he was charged with both obliterating the opposing rebellion, but also taking advantage of the situation by trying to establish a legislative union between Ireland and England (Ulster History Circle). However, despite the accusations, an Union was created in January 1801 (Barlett). Also, with this Union, the Irish Parliament came to an end, thus bringing Ireland and England closer (Ulster History Circle). Finally , the group United Irishmen was introduced with the idea in mind of promoting international "brotherhood of affection" (Barlett).

1.5 Aftermath:
The aftermath of the United Irish Rising of 1798 brought about the transformation of a society. Relationships within Ireland were shattered due to the rebellion (bbc.co.uk). “Small fragments of great rebel armies of the summer of 1798 survived for a number of years and waged a form of guerrilla or ‘fugitive’ warfare in several counties” (wapedia.mobi). Rebel forces lead by Joseph Holt, Robert Emmet, Michael Dwyer and James Corocoran continued to fight until early 1804 (wapedia.mobi). Joseph Holt surrendered in Autumn 1798, Robert Emmet failed with his rebellion in 1803 causing Michael Dwyer’s forces to fail; and in February 1804, James Corocoran lead the last rebel group to defeat (wapedia.mobi).
"The Irish parliament was another casualty of the 1798 rebellion, while Union was represented as the perfect answer to those separatists who had sought to pull Ireland and Britain apart" (bbc.co.uk). The Acts of Union did abolish discrimination against the Catholic majority but did not prevent “widespread radical mobilization of the Catholic population under Daniel O'Connell” (wapedia.mobi). “The 1798 rebellion was probably the most concentrated outbreak of violence in Irish history, and resulted in an estimated 15,000-30,000 deaths over the course of three months” (wapedia.mobi). Overall, the rebellion turned a once great nation into a broken country that was control by its neighbor, the British.


2. Important People



2.1. Lord Edward FitzGerald
http://thepeerage.com/047303_001.jpg
http://thepeerage.com/047303_001.jpg

Lord Edward Fitzgerald was born in October 15th, 1763 (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Oxford Companion). Fitzgerald was the “son of James Fitzgerald, 20th earl of Kildare and 1st duke of Leinster” (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Columbia Encyclopedia). Fitzgerald was a man with strong morals and fought hard to support what he believed in.He served in the British army in North American and fought in the American Revolution (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Oxford Companion). He became a rebel fighter. He was an Irish revolutionary and radical who traveled to Paris in 1992 because of his interest in the French Revolution and “was expelled from the British army for his avowed republicanism” (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Columbia Encyclopedia). His strong belief of improving the government lead to an uprising of reform ideas within the society. Fitzgera wanted to abolish hereditary titles (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Oxford Companion). He believed that the people should hold power of electing who should represent them as a whole. It had a greater influence on society.

He later became one of the members in the United Irishmen in 1796 (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Oxford Companion), where “he pledged to assist as commander in chief of their rebel army (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Oxford Companion). His great determination allowed him to travel. In order to strengthen their rebellion, Fitzgerald traveled to Basel in 1706 to “negotiate French aid” (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Columbia Encyclopedia). He was arrested on May 19th where he was mortally wounded (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Oxford Companion). Fitzgerald never game up and fought till the end. He died on June 4th 1798, the eve of the rebellion, where “he was betrayed by an informer” (Lord Edward Fitzgerald, Columbia Encyclopedia).


Picture Source:
"Lord Edward Fitzgerald by Hugh Douglas Hamilton, 1790." Photograph. ThePeerage.com. Web. 27 Oct. 2009. <http://thepeerage.com/047303_001.jpg>.


Songs:

Video #1 - Boolavouge (Wexford anthem) sung by Jamie and Edward Connors, Saoirse Irish band
Video #2 - Protestant Menby The Wolfe Tones




2.2. Theobald Wolfe Tone
dty.jpg
http://www.s9.com/images/portraits/30317_ToneTheobald-Wolfe.jpg

"That the influence of England was the radical vice of our Government, and that Ireland would never be either free, prosperous, or happy, until she was independent, and that independence was unattainable whilst the connection with England existed." - Wolfe Tone (irishKevinSmith.com)

Theobald Wolfe Tone was one of the founders of the Society of United Irishmen in Belfast (worldhistory.abc-clio.com). As a very outspoken man, he took action for what he thought was right. After publishing the An argument on behalf of the Catholics of Ireland pamphlet, he traveled to Ulster by invitation where he spread his economic philosophies of “revolution rather than reform” (irelandseye.com). Tone always saw the strength of the Irish people “of Catholic religious, economic, and social grievances and urged complete separation of Ireland from England” (go.grolier.com). He believed the cooperation between different religions in Ireland was the only way of obtaining aid for Irish troubles. Tone used the United Irishmen to connect the differences between the Roman Catholics and the Protestants (go.grolier.com).

Tone was born in Dublin in 1763 (encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com). His father was a Church of Ireland Protestant coach- maker who sought an honorable livelihood by his trade (books.google.com). From further readings, it could be suggested that Tone’s motivation and drive was inherited from the successes of his father. In his early years, Tone became acquainted with Matilda Witherington and left Dublin after their marriage (books.google.com). As he studied law, Tone graduated from Trinity College and attended the Inns of Court in London (books.google.com). His ideals were later converted into practice as he formed the society. He is known today as the Irish Patriot of the 1798 rebellion and is regarded as the father of the republicanism of Ireland (theyoungwolfetones.com). He was the author of a number of political pamphlets. His autobiography and journals were edited by his son, William Theobald Tone Wolfe (1791 – 1828) and his legacy lives on (infoplease.com). "He rises," says William Lecky the 19th century historian, "far above the dreary level of commonplace which Irish conspiracy in general presents (encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com).

Picture Source:
Tone Theobald- Wolfe. 2009. Photograph. S9.com. 2009. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.s9.com/images/portraits/30317_ToneTheobald-Wolfe.jpg>.

Song Source:
Bodenstown Churchyard Lyrics
Brash, Edward. "Theobald Wolfe Tone Songs." E-mail interview. 18 Nov. 2009.




2.3. Henry Joy McCracken

henry_joy_mccracken.jpg
<http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Henry_Joy_McCracken
Henry Joy McCracken

Henry Joy McCracken was born into a Protestant family on August 31st, 1767 (Henry Joy and Mary McCracken). His father, John McCracken, wasboth a sucessful entrepreneur and took part in a number of Belfast's philantrophic ventures.Henry's maternal grandfather, Henry Joy, was the founder of the Belfast News Letter and owned a variety of significant paper mills (Ulster History Circle). At an early age, Henry was interested in radical politics). In addition, Henry was given the position of manager of a cottin mill at age twenty two(Henry Joy and Mary McCracken). Utilizing his status, McCracken traveled often in order to attain political associates with the welfare and education of his workers in mind(Ulster History Circle). Around the same time, he and his sister, Mary Ann McCracken, opened up a Sunday School in 1788.In this institution, they taught low economic children, regardless of denomination, to read and write (Ulster History Circle).

In 1798, Henry allied himself with a man named Thomas Russel. With this union came the birth of the United Irishmen in Belfast (Ulster History Circle). Several years later however, an uprising occured in which affected most of Ireland. McCracken was then appointed general while in Donogrone. Furthermore, he was in control of forces that aimed to attack the town of Antrim. Despite their moral, they were beaten by government troops and suffered heavy casualities (Ulster History Circle). It with this outcome that Henry decided to escape to America after a month of being on the run (Barlett). When he was in Carrickfergus, he was captured and tried for treason. In the same day, Henry was sentenced to be hanged and that came to pass in Cornmarket, Belfast.

Picture Source:
"Henry Joy McCracken." Henry Joy McCracken. Web. <http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Henry_Joy_McCracken>.

Song:
"Song of Henry Joy McCracken." Henry Joy McCracken Song. Web. <http://www.dickgaughan.co.uk/songs/texts/henryjoy.html>.

Video :







2.4. Mary Ann McCracken
mary_ann_afs.JPG
outandabout.rushlightmagazine.com/Mallusk.html
Born from Ann Joy and Captain John McCracken in Belfast, Ireland, Mary Ann McCracken was born on July 8, 1770 (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). Growing up, Mary Ann and her younger sister Margaret created a muslin establishment, taking after her mother whose family owned a paper mill and a cotton spinning factory (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). As well as a working woman, she was also interested in mathematics, literature, politics, and becoming involved in the Society of United Irishmen (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). Her spark of interest pertaining to the Society of United Irishman was influenced highly by her brother Henry Joy McCracken (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). Many other women were also included in promoting this new organization, resulting in the establishment of the Society of United Irishwomen (The 1798 Rebellion). Her brother was also in the cotton spinning business and owned his own factory by the age of 22 (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken).

Henry Joy played a role in the establishment of the political group and was also a primary member (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). During the Rising of Antrim, Mary Ann assisted in raising Maria, the daughter of her brother as well as creating and leading the Women's Abolitionary committee in Belfast during the height of the anti slavery movement (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). Throughout this time, Mary Ann McCracken and many other women assisted in hiding weapons and serving as messengers (The 1798 Rebellion and the Origins of Irish Republicanism). Even after the death of her brother, Mary Ann McCracken continually showed her strong belief in equality by fighting for what she believed (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCraken). She died on July 26, 1866 at the age of 96 and is now buried with her brother in Clifton Street Cemetery (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCraken). A book was written about her dedication to her beliefs and her advocacy of women’s rights (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken). The book was entitled “The Life and Times of Mary Ann McCracken,” by Mary Mcneill (Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken).


"The Rising of the Moon" - The Dubliners (Video)
"The Rising of the Moon" (Lyrics)






2.5. Roddy McCorley
HenryJoy.jpg
http://www.iol.ie/~terrym/1798.htm


During the rebellion of 1798, Roddy McCorley was a great local leader from Duneane, County Antrim in Northern Ireland (reveries.com). He was born in the town land of Duneane which was about twenty miles from Toome (roddymccorley.com). Little did he know that in his future years, the town of Toome became the place where he was killed. McCorley, a son of a Miller, was seen as a United Irishmen of the Presbyterian faith (encycl.opentopia.com). As a child, “McCorley and his family had been evicted from their farm before the rebellion due to the death of his father” (encycl.opentopia.com). McCorley was a good man and later became a powerful leader after that event.

At the time of the rebellion, McCorley was a well respected man who was seen as a hero to his fellow countrymen (roddymccorley.com). He led his to victory at the Battle of Antrim and captured Randalstown (roddymccorley.com). His reputation and strong will maintained throughout the rest of the rebellion. After the rebellion, McCorley went into hiding from the British (encycl.opentopia.com). Betrayed by McErlain and Duffin, the British were able to capture him (roddymccorley.com). The British forces were determined to capture him that they sent spies out to get him. At Ballymena, McCorley was court martialled and sentenced to death (roddymccorley.com). He was then matched to the town of Toomebridge where he was executed (reveries.com). He was executed on Good Friday 1799 in the town of Toomebridge "near the bridge of Toome" which had been partially destroyed by rebels in 1798 to prevent the arrival of reinforcements from County Londonderry (encycl.opentopia.com). His body was then dissected by the British and buried under the road that went from Belfast to Derry until the mid 1800s, when he was dug up and given a proper burial in an unmarked grave (encycl.opentopia.com).



Picture Source:
"The Croppy's Complaint - Music & Songs of 1798." IOL. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.
<http://www.iol.ie/~terrym/1798.htm.>


Music Source:
"Roddy McCorley" Song & Lyrics



3. Related Links


Connors, Jamie and Edward. Saoirse Irish Band. “IRISH SONG Boolavouge (Wexford anthem).” Video. Youtube.com. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q6wGkY-4ijk>.


Culture northireland.org. "Henry Joy and Mary Ann McCracken." Web. 29 Oct 2009.
<http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article.aspx?art_id=524>.

"FitzGerald, Lord Edward." The Oxford Companion to Irish History. Oxford University Press. 2007. Encyclopedia.com. 13 Nov. 2009
<
http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

Henry Joy McCracken. Dubliners, 18 Oct. 2009. Web.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5yxSt0wSLic>.

"Henry Joy McCracken." Henry Joy McCracken. Web.
<http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Henry_Joy_McCracken>.

“Lord Edward Fitzgerald by Hugh Douglas Hamilton, 1790.” Photograph. ThePeerage.com. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
<http://thepeerage.com/047303_001.jpg>.


"Lord Edward Fitzgerald." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 18 Nov. 2009
<
http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

O'Donnell, Patrick D. "(Theobald) Wolfe Tone- Early Years, Society of the United Irishmen, Revolutionary in Exile." StateUniversity.com. © 2009 Net Industries, 2009. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com>.

O'Kelly, Patrick. The Rebellion of 1798. New York: Abbe MacGeoghegan's History of Ireland, 1893. Books.google.com. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://books.google.com/books.>

"Reveries - roger mcguinn - folk den." Reveries: Cool News of the Day | marketing people, insights, innovation, ideas. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.reveries.com/folkden/roddy.html>.

"Roddy McCorley - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia." Opentopia Encyclopedia - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://encycl.opentopia.com/term/Roddy_McCorley>.

Smith, Kevin. "Theobold Wolfe Tone." Kevin Smith. 2000. Web. 11 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.irishkevinsmith.com/index.html>.

The 1798 Rebellion. (n.d.). Retrieved December 4, 2009
<http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/rbr/rbr4_1798.html>.


The 1798 rebellion and the origins of Irish republicanism. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. <(n.d.). Retrieved December 16, 2009, from The 1798 rebellion and the Origins of Irish Republicanism:
<http://flag.blackened.net/revolt/andrew/1798republicanism.html>.

“The Wolfe Tones - Protestant Men.” Video. Youtube.com. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LmPbC1rYYOA>.

"Tone, Theobald Wolfe." Infoplease.com. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 2007. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/people/A0849021.html>.


Untitled Document. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.roddymccorley.com/Rody%20McCorley.html>.

"Your Area | Culture Northern Ireland." Culture Northern Ireland. Web. 16 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/YourArea.aspx?location=390&cmd=print>.




4. Works Cited


"1789 - 1800: The United Irishmen and the 1798 Rebellion." History of Irelend 500-1998. Ed. Wesley Johnston. Mar. 1998. Web. 27 Oct. 2009.
<http://www.wesleyjohnston.com/users/ireland/past/history/17891800.html>.


Barlett, Thomas. "The 1798 Irish Rebellion." BBC History- In Depth. BBC © MMIX, 05 Nov. 2009. Web. 23 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/irish_reb_01.shtml>.

"BBC - History - British History in depth: The 1798 Irish Rebellion." BBC - Homepage. Web. 19 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/irish_reb_01.shtml>.

British History in-depth; The 1798 Irish Rebellion. Barlett, Thomas, 5 Nov. 2009. Web. 18 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/irish_reb_01.shtml>.

Fitzgerald,John E. "The United Irish Uprising in Newfoundland, 1800." Newfoundland and Labrador Heritage. Memorial University of Newfoundland, 2001. Web. 2 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.heritage.nf.ca/society/united_irish_uprising.html>.

Henry Joy and Mary McCracken. Web. 14 Dec. 2009.
<http://www.culturenorthernireland.org/article.aspx?art_id=524>.

Irish Rebellions of the 1800's. Robert McNamara. Web. 4 Dec. 2009.
<http://history1800s.about.com/od/thebritishempire/tp/irishrebellions01.htm>.

McCaffrey, Lawrence J. "Tone, Wolfe (1763–1798)." Encyclopedia Americana. 2009. Grolier Online. 17 Nov. 2009
<http://ea.grolier.com/article?id=0388680-00>.

"Song of Henry Joy McCracken." Henry Joy McCracken Song. Web.
<http://www.dickgaughan.co.uk/songs/texts/henryjoy.html>.

"The Croppy's Complaint - Music & Songs of 1798." IOL. Web. 23 Oct. 2009.
<
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"The Irish Rebellion of 1798." World History at KMLA. 2001. Web. 02 Dec. 2009.
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Triskelle- Traditional Rebel Song Lyrics: Henry Joy McCracken. 28 Mar. 2007. Web. 20 Sept. 2009.
<http://www.triskelle.eu/lyrics/henryjoymccracken.php?index=080.010.040.020>.

Ulster History Circle- Henry Joy McCracken. Web. 20 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.ulsterhistory.co.uk/henryjoymccracken.htm>.

"United Irishmen." World History: The Modern Era. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 17 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.worldhistory.abc-clio.com>.

Wallace, Martin. The 1798 Rising. IrelandsEye.com. © 1999-2006 Irelandseye.com and contributors, 2006. Web. 5 Nov. 2009.
<http://www.irelandseye.com/aarticles/history/events/dates/1798i.shtm>.

"Wiki: Irish Rebellion of 1798." Wapedia. 2008. Wapedia, Web. 17 Nov 2009.
http://wapedia.mobi/en/Irish_Rebellion_of_1798?.