The Nine Years War & the Flight of the Earls
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http://www.webflags.com/flags/i/ireland.gif http://freepages.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wakefield/international/ireland_ulster.gif



Contents

1. Overview
1.1 Causes Leading up to the Nine Years War in Ulster - (Vincent B. B4)
1.2 Battles of the Nine Years War in Ulster - (Nick C. B4)
1.3 Aftermath of the Nine Years War in Ulster - (Eidreff D. B4)
1.4 Flight of the Earls - (Josh W. B4)

2. Famous Irish People of the Nine Years War in Ulster
2.1 Red Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone - (Joshua W. B4)
2.2 Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyronconnell - (Vincent B. B4)
2.3 Donal Cam O'Sullivan Bere (aka the Last Prince of Ireland) - (Eidreff D. B4)
2.4 Finian MacDonagh MacCarthaigh (aka Florence MacCarthy) - (Nick C. B4)

3. Relevant Links
4. Works Cited


1. Overview


1.1 Causes Leading up to the Nine Years War in Ulster
The Nine Year’s War is also known as Tyrone's Rebellion. One major cause for the Nine Year’s War was the outbreak of hostilities between the Gaelic Irish chieftain Hugh O'Neil and Hugh Roe O'Donnell of the English State in Ireland (spiritus-temporis.com). Hugh O'Neill gathered a group of people to resist the movement of the English State. He gathered people that were angered by the English government and Catholics that were against the spread of Protestantism to his rebellion force (movilleinishowen.com). The Irish fought against the English State to maintain their way of living and authority.

The English sheriff was introduced to Hugh Maguire's territory which began the Nine Year's War with Hugh Maguire's revolt at Fermanagh (movilleinishowen.com). The remaining lords at Ulster had anticipated the actions of the English State. They knew they were next on the list of potentially getting crush by the English State because the English State had already crushed other lordships (movilleinishowen.com). The Irish rebelled from the controlling authority from the the English. The English State began to increase their officials in the province and threatened the authority of the Gaelic Lords (movilleinishowen.com).The kidnapping of Hugh Roe also rose tensions between the English State and the O'Donnells (movilleinishowen.com). The war took place all around Ireland, but mostly took place at Ulster. The war involved disputes from controlling over the Pale to controlling over the whole island (movilleinishowen.com). The Resistance between Hugh O'Neil and the English advance in Ulster lead to the Nine Year's War (british-civil-wars.co.uk).


1.2 Battles of the Nine Years War in Ulster
Red Hugh O’Donnell drove the English sheriff, Captain Willis, out of Tir Connell in 1592 (tripatlas.com). Red Hugh O’Neill sat aside and watched because he wanted to make a compromise with Queen Elizabeth to be named the lord of Ulster (tripatlas.com). All this time, the first battle was longing to take place. Queen Elizabeth didn’t believe O’Neill when he said he simply wanted to be a lord. She believed that O’Neill really wanted sovereignty from England. Once it became clear to O’Neill that he was not going to become a lord, he openly joined his allies in an open attack on the English fort on the Blackwater River.

1.3 Aftermath of the Nine Years in Ulster

After The Nine Years War, O’Neill, O’Donnell and the others who survived the Ulster had been granted to return back to their estates (en.allexperts.com). In conditions to receiving the pardon they are required to abandon their Irish titles (en.allexperts.com). In the past, decisions were harsh to the opinion of an individual in the modern days. The war ended with defeat for the Irish, which led to the exiles in the Flight of the Earls (spiritus-temporis.com). Even though O’Neill and his allies is in good term with the English authorities they still left Ireland in 1607, which now is known as the Flight of the Earls (en.allexpert.com). With leaving Ireland this move gave them opportunity to start a bright future. The Flight of the Earls intended to start an expedition with the catholic church to restart the war, but were unable to find military power (en.allexperts.com). Therefore their land was confiscated and colonized in the plantation of Ulster (en.allexperts.com). Thus these events could possibly give explanation of English colonization of Ireland.

1.4 Flight of the Earls

With the Nine Years War in Ulster coming to a close with an English victory, there were Irish Earls who refused to accept English domination of their homeland. Hugh O'Neill, the Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donnell, the Earl of Tyrconnell, joined together with over ninety of their family members and followers to sail to Spain from Rothmullan, Lough Swilly, in 1607 (en.allexperts.com). Their travels though were interrupted by abysmal weather at sea, forcing them to disembark in France and continue onward to Italy (irelandseye.com). After departing Ireland and making it to France, the Earls and their entourage travelled to Rome, staying there in voluntary exile (irelandseye.com). O'Neill would end up passing away in Rome in 1616, even refusing gifted land to him from the English in Ireland so long as he submitted to the English crown (irelandseye.com). The Earls of Ireland completely refused to recognize any control of Ireland from a foreign power, preferring instead to leave their past behind them. They were important figures in Ireland and their country needed them, regardless of being controlled by England instead of native home rule. Those who fled Ireland would never return their native country (en.allexperts.com).

Irish pride led to the Earls, who were the aristocracy, to flee Ulster to foreign lands. They abhorred submitting to English rule and chose instead to leave their country along with their oppressors behind. Their dissapearance created a power void because it was the final stage in the destruction of Ireland's centuries-old Gaelic aristocracy (en.allexperts.com). With leadership completely evaporated, Ulster was defenseless against further English encroachments. England had free reign to import protestsant settlers from its homeland and Scotland to dissolve the normal society of Ulster (irelandseye.com). The Plantation of Ulster laid down the foundations for the domestic, religious conflicts Ireland and Northern Ireland have experienced, even continuing into today. (irelandseye.com). Had the Earls of stayed in Ireland, they may have been able to work the system by atleast trying to fight for Irish rights, thereby escaping the Plantation of Ulster. This could have drastically changed the religous problems experienced in modern-day Ireland.

2. Famous Irish People of the Nine Years War in Ulster



2.1 Red Hugh O'Neill, 2nd Earl of Tyrone - Joshua W. B4
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http://www.flightoftheearls.ie/images/ONeill.jpg

Hugh O'Neill was the figurehead of the Irish rebellion during the Nine Years War in Ulster, existing as a devilish foe that could fight on par with the English. He also showed questionable loyalties, making it difficult for the English to view him as a definitive friend or foe. Hugh O' Neill was born in Dublin, Ireland, but grew up in Kent and London (tudorplace.com). He would end up returning to his homeland in 1567 (nndb.com). His return, along with his subsequent actions, highlighted the confusing events in the turbulent country.

He returned to Ireland to put down the Desmond Rebllion in 1569, leading a cavalry group in the Queen's pay (tudorplace.com). His loyalties aroused suspicion amonst those in England though in 1588 when he gave aid to survivors from the wreck of the Spanish Armada in Inishowen (tudorplace.com). England kept a careful eye on O'Neill, quickly losing trust in the Irishman. In less than a decade after his compassion towards the Spaniards, he would become labelled a traitor to the crown in 1595 by becoming inaugerated as the O'Neill (tudorplace.com). He had establised a powerful foothold in Ireland by working under the English in Ireland, but he was manipulative. He would turn his power against them, starting the conflict in Ulster. He would even bring in foreign aid when he opened up communications with King Phillip II of Spain with the help of Hugh Roe O'Donnell (nndb.com).

In 1595, O'Neill rallied an army and defeated Sir John Norreys in the Battle of Clontibert, but open warfare had not been declared (tudorplace.com). This proved advantageous to the Irish becuase it allowed them to be secretive. Communications with Spain continued unbeknownst to the English to ensure aid against England while at the sametime O'Neill negotiated truces and parleys to prevent further hostilities. (tudorplace.com). Emphasis was put on 'peace' due to the English intercepting messages to Spain (nndb.com). O'Neill had successfully managed to fight against England for a time without seeing his country utterly defeated.

An end to the hostilities would come in 1598 and O'Neill recieved a pardon from Queen Elizabeth (nndb.com). It would last only a short time and O'Neill would once against control an Irish force, securing a victory near Armagh in the Battle of the Yellow Ford. (tudorplace.com). O'Neill's successes would continue to mount. His successes brought him popularity amonst the people in Ireland, with some claiming him as their leader. However, his successes would come grinding to an unfortunate end.

Spanish reinforcements eventually came at Kinsale, but their presense drew English attention who sent a large mass of soldiers to counter it (nndb.com). O'Neill wanted to assist through traditional guerilla tactics, but he was overruled by Hugh O' Donnell, who demanded a combined Irish and Spanish assault on the English (tudorplace.com). O'Neill and his allies lost, hampering the Irish chance of victory. He would go on to submite to English rule, grow distasteful of it, and take part in the Flight of the Earls. His departure crippled and destroyed hopes of a sovereign state in Ireland.

Song: "O'Donnel Aboo"




2.2 Rory O'Donnell, 1st Earl of Tyronconnel - Vincent B. B4
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http://www.flightoftheearls.ie/rory.htm



Rory O’Donnell was an Irish chieftain and an Earl from 1575 to 1608 (encyclopedia). Rory was married to Brideget, who was a daughter of the 12th Earl of Kildare, and they both had a daughter named Mary O’Donnell (araltas.com). Rory was part of the O'Donnell clan. His brother was Hugh Roe O'Donnell who was the lord of Tyrconnel (encyclopedia.com). Rory O’Donnell fought with with his brother at Kinsale (araltas.com). He became the leader when Hugh Roe left for Spain (araltas.com). When his brother left for Spain, Rory needed rienforcement. Rory joined forces with O’Conner Sligo to restore the Irish power by using strategic guerilla warfare (araltas.com).

In 1602, Rory O'Donnell and O'Conner both presented themselves to the Crown (araltas.com). Rory was knighted and titled as an Earl of Tirconnell at London when we went to claim himself to James I, after the rebellion that Hugh Roe lead (encyclopedia.com). When Rory was titled Earl, he was concerned with the way the government had been operating. He was suspicious of the land he was given. He suspected that the government was soon planning to break the powers of the Gaelic lords (araltas.com). He teamed up with Tyrone and Maguire to take control over the Dublin Castle and start an uprising conflict (araltas.com). Unfortunately, their plans were exposed, but they were fortunate enough to escape to Rome where Rory O'Donnell later died in Rome at age thirty three (araltas.com). Rory's flight inflicted the ending of the political power of the Irish tribal chieftains.


Song:"We Are The Irish"





2.3 Donal Cam O'Sullivan Bere (aka the Last Prince of Ireland) - Eidreff D. B4
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http://www.ucc.ie/acad/classics/CNLS/Funding.html
In the nine years war culminating in the Seige of Kinsale on Christmas Eve of 1601, O'Sullivan Beare's forces were defeated and he returned to his castle at Dunboy (O-Sullivan.net). Knowing his defeat this may be a solution to get away. On 31 December 1602, O’Sullivan Beare set out from the south of Ireland in his flight towards the north (genforum.com). His territory had been invaded by the President of Munster, his castle had been razed and all its defenders killed (genforum.com). In January of 1603 he led 1,000 followers across Ireland in what is known as O’Sullivan’s March (O-Sullivan.net). Thirty five people finished the march and Donal eventually escaped to Spain, while other Irish Chiefstans also escaped to Spain and became what now is known as Flight of The Earls (O-Sullivan.net).


Song:
By Alfred Perceval Graves
THE FLIGHT OF THE EARLS

To other shores across the sea
We speed with swelling sail;
Yet still there lingers on our lee
A phantom Innisfail.

Oh, fear not, fear not, gentle ghost,
Your sons shall turn untrue !
Though fain to fly your lovely coast,
They leave their hearts with you.

As slowly into distance dim
Your shadow sinks and dies,
So o'er the ocean's utmost rim
Another realm shall rise ;

New hills shall swell, new vales expand,
New rivers winding flow,
But could we for a foster land
Your mother love forego ?

Shall mighty Espan's martial praise
Our patriot pulses still,
And o'er your memory's fervent rays
For ever cast a chill ?

Oh no ! we live for your relief,
Till, home from alien earth,
We share the smile that gilds your grief,
The tear that gems your mirth.

Flight of The Earls Sheet Music




2.4 Finian MacDonagh MacCarthaigh (aka Florence MacCarthy) - Nick C. B4

external image 4crests_2080_482888960
McCarthy Family Coat of Arms. Photograph.< http://ep.yimg.com/ca/I/4crests_2080_482888960>

Finian MacDonaugh MacCarthaigh (also known as Florence MacCarthy) was born in 1560, in Munster. Finian was the son of Donaugh, the chief of the MacCarthy Reagh clan(tripatlas.com). As the chief of the MacCarthy Reagh clan, Finian was in charge of the MacCarthys Geagh of Cranberry where he controlled three hundred men (tripatlas.com). As the chief, Finian fought with the English to quiet the Desmond Rebellion (tripatlas.com). By doing this, Finian showed loyalty to the crown. However this loyalty was short lived because Finian was displeased to hear that England wanted to unify the two MacCarthy branches in Ireland into a single clan (tripatlas.com). It was suspected that Finian consulted with William Stanley and Jacques de Francesci, both of who were traitors to the crown and defected to Spain. As result, Finian was arrested as a precaution in 1588 and placed in the London Tower in 1589. Fifteen months later, MacCarthy was released from the tower and gained permission to return to Ireland.
When the Nine Year’s War began, MaCarthy didn’t decisively choose either side. MacCarthy worked with O’Donnell and O’Neill. MacCarthy also worked with the English commanders. MacCarthy was watching out for his best interest, which was to be named MacCarthy Mór.


Song: **"Flight of The Earls" The Song and Lyrics**




3. Relevant Links


"Hugh O'Neill." www.nndb.com. 2009. 9 Dec. 2009 <www.nndb.com/people/079/000102770>.

"Hugh O'Neill." www.tudorplace.com. 9 Dec. 2009 <http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/Bios/HughOneill.htm>..

Interview by Eidreff M. De Guzman. Wikispaces. GSWLA English 12, 20 Nov. 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <http://irish-rebellions.wikispaces.com/1+-+The+Nine+Years+War+%26+the+Flight+of+the+Earls>.

"O'Donnell coat of arms and Family History." WWW.ARALTAS.COM - The Internet Heraldry Store. Web. 04 Dec. 2009.<http://www.araltas.com/features/odonnell/>.


"O'Suileabhain - the name O'Sullivan and its origin." Web. 17 Dec. 2009. <http://www.o-
sullivan.net/osulname.htm>.


Photograph. University College Cork. Centre for Neo-Latin Studies, 2009. Web. 14 Dec. 2009. http://www.ucc.ie/acad/classics/CNLS/Funding.html.

"Re: O'Sullivan's from 1500's - 11th Lord Beare & Bantry Dermond O'Sullivan Beare." GenForum - Home. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. <http://genforum.genealogy.com/osullivan/messages/98.html>.

"Rory O'Donnell." Flight of the Earls :: Rathmullan :: Donegal :: Ireland ::. Web. 15 Dec. 2009. <http://www.flightoftheearls.ie/rory.htm>.

"//Rory O'Donnell Tyrconnel, earl of//." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. 5 Nov. 2009 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Rory O'Donnell earl of Tyrconnel." The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press., 2003. Answers.com 18 Nov. 2009. <http://www.answers.com/topic/earl-of-rory-o-donnelltyrconnel>.

"TripAtlas.com - About Florence_MacCarthy." TripAtlas.com: Discover the world. Share your experience. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. <http://tripatlas.com/Florence_MacCarthy>.

4. Works Cited

"Flight of the Earls." en.allexperts.com. 2 Dec. 2009 <http://en.allexperts.com/e/f/fl/flight_of_the_earls.htm>.

"Flight of the Earls." www.irelandseye.com. 2005. 21 Nov. 2009 <http://www.irelandseye.com/aarticles/history/events/dates/earls.shtm>.

"Nine Years War (Ireland) at AllExperts." Expert Archive Questions. Web. 02 Dec. 2009. < http://en.allexperts.com/e/n/ni/nine_years_war_(ireland).htm >.

"Nine Years War (Ireland) - Causes." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. <http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/nine-years-war-ireland-/causes.html>.

"Nine Years War (Ireland) - Everything on Nine Years War (Ireland) (information, latest news, articles,...)." Spiritus-Temporis.com - Historical Events, Latest News, News Archives. Web. 02 Dec. 2009. <http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/nine-years-war-ireland-/>.

"The Irish Uprising 1641." British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1638-60. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. <http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/glossary/irish-uprising-1641.htm. >

"The Nine Years War (1594-1603) Moville Inishowen Co Donegal." Moville Inishowen, Donegal, North West Ireland. Web. 16 Dec. 2009. <http://www.movilleinishowen.com/history/moville_heritage/flight_of_the_earls/nine_years_war.htm>.

"TripAtlas.com - About Nine_Years'_War_(Ireland)." TripAtlas.com: Discover the world. Share your experience. Web. 02 Dec. 2009. <http://tripatlas.com/Nine_Years_War_(Ireland)>.